The Covenant with Israel

by | Nov 29, 2020 | 0 comments

These notes accompany the sermon, “The Covenant with Israel” found here.

Structure of the of the covenant introduction, Exodus 19:3-8:[1]

  • Verse 4:  The history of the relationship.
  • Verses 5-6:  The proposed terms of the relationship.
  • Verses 7-8:  The agreement of the people to the terms.

Purpose of the Israelite covenant[2]

To make Israel a

  • Treasured possession, 1 Chr. 29:3; Eccl. 2:8; Deut. 7:6; Ps. 135:4; Mal. 3:17; Titus 2:14; Ex. 4:22; Hos. 11:1.
    • Kingdom of priests, 1 Peter 2:5, 9; Rev. 1:6; Isaiah 61:6; Rom. 12:1.
    • Holy nation, Lev. 11:44-45; 1 Peter 1:15-16, 2:5, 9; Isa. 62:12; 1 Cor. 3:17.

Note: These same titles are now applied to the New Testament Church, which is the body of Christ (See 1 Peter 2:4-10). Jesus Christ fulfilled the ceremonial and sacrificial laws so they do not need to be observed by the Church. Most of the civil laws also do not apply, since the Church does not have the responsibility of civil government, but only of church discipline (Matthew 18:15-20). However, the principles of the law, as summarized in the Ten Commandments (Exodus 20) and by Jesus (Mark 12:29-31) always apply. Instead of civil law, each local congregation is governed by the Holy Spirit through its local leadership and members, but resides within the jurisdiction of earthly authorities. (See Romans 13:1-6) This eliminates for God’s people the restrictions of geography and borders and the burden of governing a mixed multitude of people.

In the New Covenant

  • As the great and final high priest, Jesus Christ has presented himself as the final sacrifice. (Hebrews 8:1-18)
  • Jesus Christ has fulfilled the law in perfect righteousness that he now makes available to us. (Romans 3:21-26)
  • We are each indwelt with the Spirit of God, and when gathered, we are his temple. (Ephesians 2:19-22; 2 Cor. 6:16)
  • We are still called to be a kingdom of priests and a holy nation, making disciples of all nations.  1 Peter 2:5, 9; Matt. 28:18-20. 


  • Consider the privilege and responsibilities of being a treasure possession of God – a kingdom of priests and a holy nation.  How might that affect how you live your Christian life?
  • Have you entered into this holy nation by faith yet?  By baptism?  By church membership?  Is it time to take the next step to becoming a child of God? 
  • Do you need to repent and trust Jesus Christ for salvation?

Contact us at if you need assistance in any of these things.

[1] From Gentry, Peter J. and Stephen J. Wellum.  2015. God’s Kingdom through God’s Covenants. Crossway:  Wheaton, Illinois.

[2] This covenant is also referred to as the Mosaic, Sinaitic, Old, or Land covenant.  Generally, when the New Testament refers to the Old Covenant, it is referring to this covenant that God made with the nation of Israel concerning their life in the Land of the same name.

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